Home » » Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

THE INDONESIANA CENTER - KONSULTAN KULIAH KE LUAR NEGERI
TIMUR TENGAH, EROPA, AMERIKA, AUSTRALIA & ASIA TIMUR
HOTLINE : +62 823-3211-1640 / +62 857-1556-4186
E-MAIL : info.indonesianacenter@gmail.com

 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

PANDUAN KULIAH DI UNIVERSITAS AL AHGAFF YAMAN

Universitas Al-Ahgaff

Universitas Al-Ahgaff berpusat di kota Mukalla ibukota propinsi Hadhramaut Republik Yaman. Sebagian besar komponen yang dimiliki Universitas Al-Ahgaff, seperti fakultas-fakultas, language center atau kelas persiapan bagi mahasiswa baru, dan gedung rektorat, semua berada di kota yang berada di semenanjung arab ini. 

Hanya Fakultas Syariah dan Hukum saja yang berada di kota Tarim. Hal ini dilakukan guna terwujudnya pendidikan syariah yang tidak diperoleh dari bangku kuliah saja, namun juga didapat melalui lingkungan yang agamis dan ilmiah. Mengingat bahwa kota ini terkenal sebagai kota ilmu dan ulama’. Bahkan kota yang terletak sekitar 300 KM dari kota Mukalla itu oleh ISESCO (Islamic Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization) telah dinobatkan sebagai Ibu Kota Budaya Islam (Capital Of Islamic Culture) sejak tahun 2010.


 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center


Faktor sosial budaya kemasyarakatan kota ini sangat mendukung untuk dijadikan sebagai tempat mendalami ilmu agama. Ditambah lagi faktor sejarah yang mencatat bahwa dari sinilah islam di beberapa belahan dunia, seperti Asia dan Afrika, disebarkan dan berkembang dengan pesat berkat kegigihan dan keikhlasan para tokohnya dalam berdakwah.

Universitas Al-Ahgaff berdiri sebagai langkah nyata dari gagasan para ulama' terkemuka yang dipelopori oleh Al-Allamah Al-Habib Abdulloh bin Mahfudz Al-Haddad (Alm), Mufti Provinsi Hadramaut kala itu demi terwujudnya tujuan utama yaitu membangun sarana pendidikan Islam yang bermutu bagi masyarakat Muslim dunia dengan pola pendidikan yang mampu mencetak sarjana Muslim yang prospektif dan mumpuni dalam segala aspek kehidupan, yang berasaskan ruh Islam ala Ahlussunnah wal Jama'ah. 

Universitas ini resmi berdiri pada tahun 1994 melalui SK Mentri Pendidikan Yaman Nomor : 5 tanggal 8 Februari Tahun 1994. Dan pada tahun 1995 universitas Al-Ahgaff resmi menjadi anggota Persatuan Universitas Liga Arab dan juga anggota Asosiasi Universitas-universitas Islam. 

 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

Fakultas-fakultas

1. Syariah 
A. Syariah wal Qonun (10 semester)
B. Syariah (10 semester) 

2. Ekonomi & Manajemen Bisnis
A. Akutansi (8 semester) 
B. Manajemen Bisnis (8 semester) 

3. Sastra & Humaniora
Bahasa Inggris (8 semester) 

4. Tarbiyah Khusus Putri
A. Dirosah Islamiah (8 semester) 
B. Bahasa Arab (8 semester) 
C. Komputer (8 semester) 
D. Bahasa Inggris (8 semester) 

Fakultas Yang Disediakan

Beasiswa bagi mahasiswa/i Indonesia hanya diberikan khusus untuk studi di:

1. Fakultas Syariah untuk putra
2. Fakultas Tarbiyah jurusan Dirosah Islamiyah untuk putri


 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center


Beasiswa Yang Diberikan

Bagi mereka yang telah dinyatakan lulus tes dan memenuhi syarat akan mendapatkan beasiswa yang meliputi: biaya pendidikan dan asrama selama belajar di sana.
Beasiswa tersebut TIDAK termasuk biaya makan (per semester $ 180,-), ijin tinggal (per tahun kurang-lebih $ 40), uang saku, dan kebutuhan-kebutuhan pribadi yang lain.

Adapun untuk biaya keberangkatan setiap calon mahasiswa dikenakan biaya sebesar $ 3.000,- (tiga ribu dolar Amerika) dengan perincian sebagai berikut:

1. Biaya keberangkatan
2. Visa
3. Terjemah ijazah dan legalisir di Kemenkeh, Kemenlu dan Dubes Yaman
4. Ijin tinggal dan medical untuk tahun pertama
5. Biaya makan untuk 1 tahun pertama
6. Jaminan tiket kepulangan dalam bentuk pinjaman/qordh untuk Universitas sebesar $ 500,-
7. Infaq untuk Universitas. 

Bagi para peserta ujian seleksi yang tidak lulus tes dapat mengikuti program persiapan di Markaz Lughah Arabiyah dengan tambahan biaya $1.000,- 

Dan khusus untuk peserta putra, mereka juga bisa memilih untuk belajar di Pondok pesantren Ribath Alawiyah yang berada dibawah asuhan rektor Universitas Al-Ahgaff, Prof. Habib Abdullah Muhammad Baharun, di kota Mukalla Yaman, dengan biaya $ 3.000,- dengan rincian yang sama.

MARKAZ LUGHOH ARABIAH

Markaz Lughoh Arabiah adalah progam pembelajaran bahasa Arab secara intens dengan menggunakan sistem kursus selama 2 semester yang disiapkan oleh universitas Al-Ahgaff sebagai kelas persiapan bagi para pelajar sebelum melanjutkan belajar ke universitas. Kelas Persiapan ini lebih menekankan materi-materi yang berhubungan dengan ketrampilan dalam berbahasa Arab; baik dalam Maharotul Istima' (listening), Maharotul Kalam (speaking), Maharotul Qiro,ah (Reading) dan Maharotul Kitabah (Writing).

PONDOK PESANTREN RIBATH ALAWIYAH.

Ribath Alawiyah adalah salah satu pondok pesantren yang berada di kota Mukalla-Hadhramaut-Yaman. Laiknya Ribath-ribath yang ada, Ribath Alawiyah mengajarkan ilmu-ilmu agama dg mengkaji turots atau kitab-kitab klasik dalam berbagai bidang. Meliputi: Nahwu, shorof, Imla', Fiqh, Ushul Fiqh, Hadits, Akhlaq, dll.
Berada dibawah naungan universitas Al-Ahgaff yang dipimpin oleh Prof. Habib Abdulloh Muhammad Baharun MA, Ribath Alawiyah memperkenankan para santrinya untuk meneruskan pendidikan ke Universitas Al Ahgaff setelah memenuhi persyaratan yang ditetapkan oleh pihak Ribath.


 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center


Ujian Seleksi

A. Mekanisme Pendaftaran

Pendaftaran dilakukan secara online dengan mengisi formulir yang telah disiapkan di akhir halaman ini. Pendaftaran gelombang pertama dibuka mulai tanggal 20 April 2018 sampai dengan tanggal 14 Juni 2018.

Dibuka lagi untuk gelombang ke 2 mulai tanggal 29 juni 2018 dan ditutup pada tanggal 20 juli 2018.

B. Syarat Pendaftaran

1. Mengisi formulir pendaftaran secara online

2. Scan Ijazah Aliyah/SMA/yang sederajat yang telah diakui Diknas, dan transkip nilai dengan nilai rata-rata minimal 7 dan usia ijazah tidak lebih dari 3 tahun.

3. Pas foto berwarna ukuran 4x6 latar belakang putih

4. Surat rekomondasi/pengantar dari pondok pesantren atau sekolah berisi izin untuk mengikuti seleksi. 

C. Materi Ujian

I). Ujian Tahriri: Fiqh & Bahasa Arab (Nahwu, Shorof,Ta'bir)

II). Ujian Syafahi: Muhadatsah & membaca kitab setingkat Fathul Qorib syarah Taqrib. 

D. Waktu & Tempat Ujian

❇ 31 Juli 2018
Tempat:

✴Ponpes Al Kautsar Al Akbar - Medan, Sumut.

✴Ponpes Ar Riyadh, no. 59, 13 Ulu Palembang Sumsel. 

❇ 02 Agustus 2018
Tempat:

✴Ponpes Darul Ilmi, Jl Ahmad Yani, KM 19,2 Kec. Lianganggang-Banjar baru

✴PP. Kauman - Lasem-Rembang - Jawa Tengah.

❇04 s/d 05 Agustus 2018.

✴Tempat: Ponpes Darul Lughoh Wad Da'wah - Raci, Bangil, Pasuruan Jawa Timur

❇ 07 Agustus 2018.
Tempat:

✴Ponpes Al Khairaat - Kuching Malaysia
✴Mambaul Khoirot-Ketapang Kalbar
✴Lombok, NTB. 
✴Palu, Sulawesi. 

❇11 s/d 12 Agustus 2018.

✴Tempat: PCNU Kab. Cirebon
Jl. R.Dewi Sartika No 09 Sumber, Cirebon.

 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

Republik Yaman adalah sebuah negara di Jazirah Arab di Asia Barat Daya, bagian dari Timur Tengah. Yaman berbatasan dengan Laut Arab di sebelah selatan, Teluk Aden dan Laut Merah di sebelah barat, Oman di sebelah timur dan Arab Saudi di sebelah utara. Orang-orang keturunan Arab di Indonesia sebagian besarnya berasal dari negara ini.

Penduduk Yaman diperkirakan berjumlah sekitar 23 juta jiwa. Luas negara ini sekitar 530.000 km2 dan wilayahnya meliputi lebih dari 200 pulau. Pulau terbesarnya, Sokotra, terletak sekitar 415 kilometer dari selatan Yaman, di lepas pantai Somalia. Yaman adalah satu-satunya negara republik di Jazirah Arab.

 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

Pada Februari 2004, Yaman dibagi menjadi dua puluh kegubernuran (muhafazat) dan satu kotamadya disebut "Amanat Al-Asemah" (yang terakhir yang berisi ibu kota, Sana'a)

With its long sea border between eastern and western civilizations, Yemen has long existed at a crossroads of cultures with a strategic location in terms of trade on the west of the Arabian Peninsula. Large settlements for their era existed in the mountains of northern Yemen as early as 5000 BC.

The Sabaean Kingdom came into existence from at least the 11th century BC. The four major kingdoms or tribal confederations in South Arabia were: Saba, Hadramout, Qataban, and Ma'in. Saba’ (Arabic: سَـبَـأ‎) is thought to be biblical Sheba, and was the most prominent federation. The Sabaean rulers adopted the title Mukarrib generally thought to mean unifier, or a priest-king, or the head of confederation of South Arabian kingdoms, the 'king of the kings'. The role of the Mukarrib was to bring the various tribes under the kingdom and preside over them all. The Sabaeans built the Great Dam of Marib around 940 BC.The dam was built to withstand the seasonal flash floods surging down the valley.

Between 700 and 680 BC, the Kingdom of Awsan dominated Aden and its surroundings and challenged the Sabaean supremacy in the Arabian South. Sabaean Mukarrib Karib'il Watar I conquered the entire realm of Awsan, and expanded Sabaean rule and territory to include much of South Arabin.ack of water in the Arabian Peninsula prevented the Sabaeans from unifying the entire peninsula. Instead, they established various colonies to control trade routes.

Evidence of Sabaean influence is found in northern Ethiopia, where the South Arabian alphabet, religion and pantheon, and the South Arabian style of art and architecture were introduced. The Sabaean created a sense of identity through their religion. They worshipped El-Maqah and believed that they were his children. For centuries, the Sabaeans controlled outbound trade across the Bab-el-Mandeb, a strait separating the Arabian Peninsula from the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea from the Indian Ocean.

By the third century BC, Qataban, Hadramout, and Ma'in became independent from Saba and established themselves in the Yemeni arena. Minaean rule stretched as far as Dedan, with their capital at Baraqish. The Sabaeans regained their control over Ma'in after the collapse of Qataban in 50 BCE. By the time of the Roman expedition to Arabia Felix in 25 BC, the Sabaeans were once again the dominating power in Southern Arabia. Aelius Gallus was ordered to lead a military campaign to establish Roman dominance over the Sabaeans.

The Romans had a vague and contradictory geographical knowledge about Arabia Felix or Yemen. The Roman army of 10,000 men was defeated before Marib. Strabo's close relationship with Aelius Gallus led him to attempt to justify his friend's defeat in his writings. It took the Romans six months to reach Marib and 60 days to return to Egypt. The Romans blamed their Nabataean guide and executed him for treachery. No direct mention in Sabaean inscriptions of the Roman expedition has yet been found.

After the Roman expedition – perhaps earlier – the country fell into chaos, and two clans, namely Hamdan and Himyar, claimed kingship, assuming the title King of Sheba and Dhu Raydan. Dhu Raydan, i.e., Himyarites, allied themselves with Aksum in Ethiopia against the Sabaeans. The chief of Bakil and king of Saba and Dhu Raydan, El Sharih Yahdhib, launched successful campaigns against the Himyarites and Habashat, i.e., Aksum, El Sharih took pride in his campaigns and added the title Yahdhib to his name, which means "suppressor"; he used to kill his enemies by cutting them to pieces. Sana'a came into prominence during his reign, as he built the Ghumdan Palace as his place of residence.

The Himyarite annexed Sana'a from Hamdan around 100 CE. Hashdi tribesmen rebelled against them and regained Sana'a around 180 AD. Shammar Yahri'sh had not conquered Hadramout, Najran, and Tihama until 275 CE, thus unifying Yemen and consolidating Himyarite rule. The Himyarites rejected polytheism and adhered to a consensual form of monotheism called Rahmanism.

In 354 CE, Roman Emperor Constantius II sent an embassy headed by Theophilos the Indian to convert the Himyarites to Christianity. According to Philostorgius, the mission was resisted by local Jews. Several inscriptions have been found in Hebrew and Sabaean praising the ruling house in Jewish terms for "...helping and empowering the People of Israel."

According to Islamic traditions, King As'ad the Perfect mounted a military expedition to support the Jews of Yathrib. Abu Kariba As'ad, as known from the inscriptions, led a military campaign to central Arabia or Najd to support the vassal Kingdom of Kindah against the Lakhmids. However, no direct reference to Judaism or Yathrib was discovered from his lengthy reign. Abu Kariba died in 445 CE, having reigned for almost 50 years. By 515 AD, Himyar became increasingly divided along religious lines and a bitter conflict between different factions paved the way for an Aksumite intervention. The last Himyarite king Ma'adikarib Ya'fur was supported by Aksum against his Jewish rivals. Ma'adikarib was Christian and launched a campaign against the Lakhmids in southern Iraq, with the support of other Arab allies of Byzantium. The Lakhmids were a Bulwark of Persia, which was intolerant to a proselytizing religion like Christianity.

After the death of Ma'adikarib Ya'fur around 521 CE, a Himyarite Jewish warlord named Yousef Asar Yathar rose to power with the honorary title of Yathar (meaning, "to avenge"). Yemenite Christians, aided by Aksum and Byzantium, systematically persecuted Jews and burned down several synagogues across the land. Yousef avenged his people with great cruelty. He marched toward the port city of Mocha, killing 14,000 and capturing 11,000. Then he settled a camp in Bab-el-Mandeb to prevent aid flowing from Aksum. At the same time, Yousef sent an army under the command of another Jewish warlord, Sharahil Yaqbul, to Najran. Sharahil had reinforcements from the Bedouins of the Kindah and Madh'hij tribes, eventually wiping out the Christian community in Najran.

Yousef or Dhu Nuwas (the one with sidelocks) as known in Arabic literature, believed that Christians in Yemen were a fifth column. Christian sources portray Dhu Nuwas (Yousef Asar) as a Jewish zealot, while Islamic traditions say that he threw 20,000 Christians into pits filled with flaming oil. This history, however, is shrouded in legend. Dhu Nuwas left two inscriptions, neither of them making any reference to fiery pits. Byzantium had to act or lose all credibility as protector of eastern Christianity. It is reported that Byzantium Emperor Justin I sent a letter to the Aksumite King Kaleb, pressuring him to "...attack the abominable Hebrew." A tripartite military alliance of Byzantine, Aksumite, and Arab Christians successfully defeated Yousef around 525–527 CE, and a client Christian king was installed on the Himyarite throne.

Esimiphaios was a local Christian lord, mentioned in an inscription celebrating the burning of an ancient Sabaean palace in Marib to build a church on its ruins. Three new churches were built in Najran alone. Many tribes did not recognize Esimiphaios's authority. Esimiphaios was displaced in 531 by a warrior named Abraha, who refused to leave Yemen and declared himself an independent king of Himyar.

Emperor Justinian I sent an embassy to Yemen. He wanted the officially Christian Himyarites to use their influence on the tribes in inner Arabia to launch military operations against Persia. Justinian I bestowed the "dignity of king" upon the Arab sheikhs of Kindah and Ghassan in central and northern Arabia. From early on, Roman and Byzantine policy was to develop close links with the powers of the coast of the Red Sea. They were successful in converting[clarification needed] Aksum and influencing their culture. The results with regard to Yemen were rather disappointing.

A Kendite prince called Yazid bin Kabshat rebelled against Abraha and his Arab Christian allies. A truce was reached once the Great Dam of Marib had suffered a breach. Abraha died around 555–565; no reliable sources regarding his death are available. The Sasanid empire annexed Aden around 570 CE. Under their rule, most of Yemen enjoyed great autonomy except for Aden and Sana'a. This era marked the collapse of ancient South Arabian civilization, since the greater part of the country was under several independent clans until the arrival of Islam in 630 CE.

 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

Kegubernuran dibagi lagi menjadi 333 distrik (muderiah), yang dibagi lagi menjadi 2.210 kecamatan, dan kemudian ke dalam 38.284 desa (per 2001).

Muhammed sent his cousin Ali to Sana'a and its surroundings around 630 CE. At the time, Yemen was the most advanced region in Arabia. The Banu Hamdanconfederation was among the first to accept Islam. Muhammed sent Muadh ibn Jabal, as well to Al-Janad, in present-day Taiz, and dispatched letters to various tribal leaders. The reason behind this was the division among the tribes and the absence of a strong central authority in Yemen during the days of the prophet.

Major tribes, including Himyar, sent delegations to Medina during the "year of delegations" around 630–631 CE. Several Yemenis accepted Islam before the year 630, such as Ammar ibn Yasir, Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami, Miqdad ibn Aswad, Abu Musa Ashaari, and Sharhabeel ibn Hasana. A man named 'Abhala ibn Ka'ab Al-Ansi expelled the remaining Persians and claimed he was a prophet of Rahman. He was assassinated by a Yemeni of Persian origin called Fayruz al-Daylami. Christians, who were mainly staying in Najran along with Jews, agreed to pay jizyah (Arabic: جِـزْيَـة‎), although some Jews converted to Islam, such as Wahb ibn Munabbih and Ka'ab al-Ahbar.

Yemen was stable during the Rashidun Caliphate. Yemeni tribes played a pivotal role in the Islamic expansion of Egypt, Iraq, Persia, the Levant, Anatolia, North Africa, Sicily, and Andalusia.Yemeni tribes who settled in Syria, contributed significantly to the solidification of Umayyad rule, especially during the reign of Marwan I. Powerful Yemenite tribes such as Kindah were on his side during the Battle of Marj Rahit.

Several emirates led by people of Yemeni descent were established in North Africa and Andalusia. Effective control over entire Yemen was not achieved by the Umayyad Caliphate. Imam Abdullah ibn Yahya Al-Kindi was elected in 745 CE to lead the Ibāḍī movement in Hadramawt and Oman. He expelled the Umayyad governor from Sana'a and captured Mecca and Medina in 746. Al-Kindi, known by his nickname "Talib al-Haqq" (seeker of truth), established the first Ibadi state in the history of Islam, but was killed in Taif around 749.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Ziyad founded the Ziyadid dynasty in Tihama around 818 CE. The state stretched from Haly (in present-day Saudi Arabia) to Aden. They nominally recognized the Abbasid Caliphate, but were in fact ruling independently from their capital in Zabid. The history of this dynasty is obscure. They never exercised control over the highlands and Hadramawt, and did not control more than a coastal strip of the Yemen (Tihama) bordering the Red Sea. A Himyarite clan called the Yufirids established their rule over the highlands from Saada to Taiz, while Hadramawt was an Ibadi stronghold and rejected all allegiance to the Abbasids in Baghdad. By virtue of its location, the Ziyadid dynasty of Zabid developed a special relationship with Abyssinia. The chief of the Dahlak islands exported slaves, as well as amber and leopard hides, to the then ruler of Yemen.

The first Zaidi imam, Yahya ibn al-Husayn, arrived in Yemen in 893 CE. He was the founder of the Zaidi imamate in 897. He was a religious cleric and judge who was invited to come to Saada from Medina to arbitrate tribal disputes. Imam Yahya persuaded local tribesmen to follow his teachings. The sect slowly spread across the highlands, as the tribes of Hashid and Bakil, later known as "the twin wings of the imamate," accepted his authority.

Yahya established his influence in Saada and Najran. He also tried to capture Sana'a from the Yufirids in 901 CE, but failed miserably. In 904, the Qarmatians invaded Sana'a. The Yufirid emir As'ad ibn Ibrahim retreated to Al-Jawf, and between 904 and 913, Sana'a was conquered no less than 20 times by Qarmatians and Yufirids. As'ad ibn Ibrahim regained Sana'a in 915. Yemen was in turmoil as Sana'a became a battlefield for the three dynasties, as well as independent tribes.

The Yufirid emir Abdullah ibn Qahtan attacked and burned Zabid in 989, severely weakening the Ziyadid dynasty The Ziyadid monarchs lost effective power after 989, or even earlier than that. Meanwhile, a succession of slaves held power in Zabid and continued to govern in the name of their masters, eventually establishing their own dynasty around 1022 or 1050 according to different sources. Although they were recognized by the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, they ruled no more than Zabid and four districts to its north. The rise of the Ismaili Shia Sulayhid dynasty in the Yemeni highlands reduced their history to a series of intrigues.

 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

The Sulayhid dynasty was founded in the northern highlands around 1040; at the time, Yemen was ruled by different local dynasties. In 1060, Ali ibn Muhammed Al-Sulayhi conquered Zabid and killed its ruler Al-Najah, founder of the Najahid dynasty. His sons were forced to flee to Dahlak.Hadramawt fell into Sulayhid hands after their capture of Aden in 1162.

By 1063, Ali had subjugated Greater Yemen. He then marched toward Hejaz and occupied Makkah. Ali was married to Asma bint Shihab, who governed Yemen with her husband. The Khutba during Friday prayers was proclaimed in her husband and her names. No other Arab woman had this honor since the advent of Islam.

Ali al-Sulayhi was killed by Najah's sons on his way to Mecca in 1084. His son Ahmed Al-Mukarram led an army to Zabid and killed 8,000 of its inhabitants. He later installed the Zurayids to govern Aden. al-Mukarram, who had been afflicted with facial paralysis resulting from war injuries, retired in 1087 and handed over power to his wife Arwa al-Sulayhi. Queen Arwa moved the seat of the Sulayhid dynasty from Sana'a to Jibla, a small town in central Yemen near Ibb. Jibla was strategically near the Sulayhid dynasty source of wealth, the agricultural central highlands. It was also within easy reach of the southern portion of the country, especially Aden. She sent Ismaili missionaries to India, where a significant Ismaili community was formed that exists to this day. Queen Arwa continued to rule securely until her death in 1138.

Arwa al-Sulayhi is still remembered as a great and much loved sovereign, as attested in Yemeni historiography, literature, and popular lore, where she is referred to as Balqis al-sughra ("the junior queen of Sheba"). Although the Sulayhids were Ismaili, they never tried to impose their beliefs on the public. Shortly after Queen Arwa's death, the country was split between five competing petty dynasties along religious lines. The Ayyubid dynasty overthrew the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt. A few years after their rise to power, Saladin dispatched his brother Turan Shah to conquer Yemen in 1174.

 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center

Turan Shah conquered Zabid from the Mahdids in May 1174, then marched toward Aden in June and captured it from the Zurayids. The Hamdanid sultans of Sana'a resisted the Ayyubid in 1175, and the Ayyubids did not manage to definitely secure Sana'a until 1189. The Ayyubid rule was stable in southern and central Yemen, where they succeeded in eliminating the ministates of that region, while Ismaili and Zaidi tribesmen continued to hold out in a number of fortresses.

The Ayyubids failed to capture the Zaydis stronghold in northern Yemen In 1191, Zaydis of Shibam Kawkaban rebelled and killed 700 Ayyubid soldiers. Imam Abdullah bin Hamza proclaimed the imamate in 1197 and fought al-Mu'izz Ismail, the Ayyubid Sultan of Yemen. Imam Abdullah was defeated at first, but was able to conquer Sana'a and Dhamar in 1198, and al-Mu'izz Ismail was assassinated in 1202.

Abdullah bin Hamza carried on the struggle against the Ayyubid until his death in 1217. After his demise, the Zaidi community was split between two rival imams. The Zaydis were dispersed and a truce was signed with the Ayyubid in 1219. The Ayyubid army was defeated in Dhamar in 1226. Ayyubid Sultan Mas'ud Yusuf left for Mecca in 1228, never to return. Other sources suggest that he was forced to leave for Egypt instead in 1123.

The Rasulid Dynasty was established in 1229 by Umar ibn Rasul, who was appointed deputy governor by the Ayyubids in 1223. When the last Ayyubid ruler left Yemen in 1229, Umar stayed in the country as caretaker. He subsequently declared himself an independent king by assuming the title "al-Malik Al-Mansur" (the king assisted by Allah). Umar established the Rasulid dynasty on a firm foundation and expanded its territory to include the area from Dhofar to Mecca

Umar first established himself at Zabid, then moved into the mountainous interior, taking the important highland centre Sana'a. However, the Rasulid capitals were Zabid and Taiz. He was assassinated by his nephew in 1249. Omar's son Yousef defeated the faction led by his father's assassins and crushed several counter-attacks by the Zaydi imams who still held on in the northern highland. Mainly because of the victories he scored over his rivals, he assumed the honorific title "al-Muzaffar" (the victorious).

After the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols in 1258, al-Muzaffar Yusuf I appropriated the title of caliph. He chose the city of Taiz to become the political capital of the kingdom because of its strategic location and proximity to Aden. al-Muzaffar Yusuf I died in 1296, having reigned for 47 years. When the news of his death reached the Zaydi imam Al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya, he commented,

 Bimbingan Belajar Kuliah ke Yaman (Universitas Al-Ahgaff) - Timur Tengah - Indonesiana Center


Yemen is in Western Asia, in the southern half of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the Red Sea. It lies south of Saudi Arabia and west of Oman, between latitudes 12 and 19°N and longitudes 42 and 55°E. Yemen is at 15°N 48°E. Yemen is 527,970 km2 (203,850 sq mi) in size.

A number of Red Sea islands, including the Hanish Islands, Kamaran, and Perim, as well as Socotra in the Arabian Sea, belong to Yemen. Many of the islands are volcanic; for example Jabal al-Tair had a volcanic eruption in 2007 and before that in 1883. Yemen is a transcontinental country.


##########

BIMBINGAN BELAJAR KE TIMUR TENGAH : Lebanon - Maroko - Mesir - Pakistan - Sudan - Qatar - Saudia Arabia - Tunisia - Suriah - Yaman UMROH & HAJI PLUS : Umroh Reguler - Umroh Plus - Haji Plus Furodah TOUR INTERNASIONAL : ASEAN (Singapura / Kuala Lumpur / Bangkok) - Timur Tengah (Turki - Mesir) - Eropa Barat - Amerika - Asia Timur (Cina / Hongkong / Korea Selatan / Jepang) TOUR DOMESTIK : Danau Toba - Jakarta Kepulauan Seribu - Bogor Bandung - Semarang Karimun Jawa - Yogyakarta Solo - Surabaya Malang Bromo - Bali Lombok - Bunaken Manado - Raja Ampat TIKET BLOCK SEAT UMROH HAJI PLUS & GROUP : Tiket Block Seat Umroh - Haji Plus Furodah - Group Tour PENGURUSAN VISA LUAR NEGERI Visa Luar Negeri : Amerika - Australia - Brazil - Cina - Inggris - Irlandia - Italia - Jepang - Jerman - Korea Selatan - Mesir - Norwegia - Rusia - Schengen - Spanyol - Taiwan PENGURUSAN PASPOR Paspor LAND ARRANGEMENT : Umroh TIKET BLOCK SEAT UMROH HAJI GROUP FIT BOOKING SEAT : Garuda Indonesia - GA / Saudi Airlines - SV / Emirates Airline - EK / Etihad Airways - EY / Srilankan Airlines - UL / Turkish Airlines - TK / Lion Air - JT / Malaysia Airlines - MH / Air Asia - AK / Oman Air - WY / Philippine Airlines - PR / Citilink - QG / Scoot - TR / Qatar Airways - QR / Royal Jordanian - RJ  OLEH-OLEH HAJI & UMROH / TIMUR TENGAH : Air Zamzam - Kurma Arab - Kacang Arab - Tasbih Kokka - Peci Arab - Sajadah Arab - Kismis Arab - Minyak Zaitun - Gamis Pria - Abaya Wanita - Coklat Arab - Papyrus Arab - Alat Shisha - Pashmina Arab - Aksesoris Arab - Tas Arab - Hajar Jahannam - Buah Tin - Madu Arab - Oleh Lainnya MEDIATOR KULIAH LUAR NEGERI Sudan - Pakistan - Mesir - Maroko - Lebanon - Qatar - Arab Saudi - Tunisia - Turki - Yaman BIMBINGAN BELAJAR KE TIMUR TENGAH Sudan - Pakistan - Mesir - Maroko - Lebanon - Qatar - Arab Saudi - Tunisia - Turki - Yaman BIMBINGAN BELAJAR MASUK GONTOR Putra - Putri CONTOH SOAL UJIAN TES SELEKSI PENERIMAAN BEASISWA KULIAH TIMUR TENGAH (AL AZHAR MESIR, SUDAN, LEBANON & MAROKO) : Tahun 2010 - Tahun 2011 - Tahun 2012 - Tahun 2014 - Tahun 2015 - Tahun 2016 - Tahun 2017 BELAJAR ILMU KEISLAMAN : Rumah Tahfidz - Ilmu Keislaman - Kursus Bahasa Arab
##########
Share this article :
 
Support : INDONESIANA GROUP Copyright © 2018. Bait Syariah Indonesia - All Rights Reserved
Template Created by Creating Website Published by Mas Template
Proudly powered by Blogger